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  • K


    Acids in the blood formed when body fat is used instead of glucose to provide energy. High levels of ketones can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis and coma.


    A ketone build-up in the body that may lead to diabetic ketoacidosis. Signs are nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain.

  • L

    Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA)

    A form of autoimmune (type 1) diabetes which is diagnosed later in life (after 30 years of age). People with LADA are often mistakenly thought to have type 2 diabetes.

    Lap banding

    Surgery to reduce the size of the stomach to help morbidly obese people lose weight. (Also see Bariatric surgery)


    Fatty lumps that form when insulin is consistently injected into the same area.

    Long acting insulin

    Insulin that is absorbed slowly into the body after injection. Commonly used in conjunction with short acting insulin in the management of type 1 diabetes in children.

  • M


    Referring to the large blood vessels of the body.

    Metabolic syndrome

    A syndrome in which several conditions occur together, including obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes or pre-diabetes, hypertension and high lipids.


    The process by which cells chemically change food so that it can be used to store or use energy and make proteins, fats, and sugars.


    A tablet that lowers blood glucose levels by blocking the release of glucose from the liver. Usually used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, sometimes used for weight management in children with type 1 diabetes in conjunction with insulin.


    Referring to the small blood vessels of the body.

    Millimole (mmol)

    A unit for measuring the concentration of glucose and other substances in the blood.


    Leakage of small amounts of protein into the urine.

    Monounsaturated fat

    A healthy fat that may help reduce the risk of heart disease. Found in olive and canola oil, nuts and avocadoes.

  • N

    National Diabetes Services Scheme – NDSS

    The National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS) is an initiative of the Australian Government that is administered by Diabetes Australia.


    Damage to the kidneys.


    Damage to parts of the nervous system.

    NIDDM (non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus)

    The former name for type 2 diabetes.

  • O


    A greater than normal amount of fat in the body. A body mass index of 30 or more.


    An above-normal body weight. A body mass index of 25 to 29.9.

  • P


    A gland or organ behind the stomach that produces hormones such as insulin.


    Excessive thirst and drinking large amounts of water.

    Polyunsaturated fat

    A healthy fat that may help reduce the risk of heart disease. Found in fish and in vegetable oils such as sunflower oil, as well as in nuts and seeds.


    Passing large amounts of urine due to excess glucose in the blood stream.


    After a meal.


    A condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes.


    The number of people in a population who have a certain disease or condition. (Also see Incidence)


    A nutrient in food that is important for growth, development and repair of tissues. Foods high in protein include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, legumes and dairy foods.

  • R


    Damage to the small blood vessels at the back of the eye.

  • S

    Saturated fat

    A type of fat that has been shown to increase the risk of heart disease. Found in animal foods such as butter, full fat dairy foods and fatty meats, as well as in many processed and takeaway foods.

    Short acting insulin

    Insulin that is absorbed quickly into the body after injection. Commonly used in conjunction with long acting insulin in the management of type 1 diabetes in children.

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer

    A technique that combines an egg which has had its nucleus removed and the nucleus of a somatic cell to make an embryo. A somatic cell is any cell within the human body other than the reproductive cells (Also see Therapeutic cloning)


    Underneath the skin.

  • T

    Therapeutic cloning

    Taking an egg from which the nucleus has been removed and replacing that nucleus with DNA from the cell of another organism, using a process known as somatic cell nuclear transfer. This single cell forms an early stage embryo with almost identical DNA to the original organism. (Also see Somatic cell nuclear transfer)

    Type 1 diabetes

    Also known as insulin dependent diabetes. Occurs when the pancreas stops making insulin. Requires daily insulin injections for survival.

    Type 2 diabetes

    Also known as non insulin dependent diabetes. Occurs when there is either insufficient insulin or the insulin produced does not work effectively.

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